Sadio Mane netted both his side's goals to move on to 22 for the season, meaning he shares the Golden Boot with team-mate Mohamed Salah and Arsenal's Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang.
Ederson had also been in the running for the goalkeeping award having gone into City's game with Brighton on 20 clean sheets, but conceded early on to Glenn Murray to end his chances.
Pep Guardiola's men stormed back with goals from Sergio Aguero and Aymeric Laporte to move back ahead of Liverpool, before Riyad Mahrez and Ilkay Gundogan sealed a 4-1 win in the second half.
City thus retain their crown, finishing a single point ahead of Liverpool on 98 and 97 respectively in what has been an historic campaign for the two near-invincible challengers.
Alisson becomes the first Brazilian ever to win the Golden Glove, a prize which has run since 2004-5 and is given to the goalkeeper who keeps most clean sheets over the course of each season.
Previous winners include former Liverpool No. 1 Pepe Reina, who won three times in a row between 2006 and 2008; Petr Cech, the inaugural winner in 2005 before repeating his triumph in 2009-10, 2013-14 (shared with Wojciech Szczesny) and 2015-16; and last season's winner, Manchester United star David de Gea.
His tally of 21 shutouts, moreover, is the joint-second highest since the award began, a distinction he shares with former United idol Edwin van der Sar.
In both breaking 20 Ederson and Alisson are also the first goalkeeping pair to reach that figure in a single season since Van der Sar and Pepe Reina in 2008-9.
Cech still holds the overall record, having kept 24 clean sheets for Chelsea in 2004-5 to help the Blues to title glory under Jose Mourinho.