The Tottenham striker has won 23 caps and scored 12 goals for his country, and has captained the Three Lions four times under Gareth Southgate, in a friendly against France and World Cup qualifiers against Lithuania, Slovenia and Scotland.
Kane has been in excellent form for Spurs this season, netting a total of 41 goals in all competitions as the club finished third in the Premier League and reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup.
Speaking early on Tuesday, Kane said: "It's an amazing honour. You always dream of playing for England growing up.
"I can't wait for the World Cup. Leading the lads out is going to be special."
The 24-year-old has been hailed as an example to follow by manager Southgate, who selected Kane as skipper over the likes of Liverpool's Jordan Henderson and the forward's Spurs team-mate Eric Dier.
“Harry has some outstanding personal qualities. He is a meticulous professional and one of the most important things for a captain is that they set the standard every day," Southgate said.
“He has belief and high standards and it is a great message for the team to have a captain who has shown that it is possible to be one of the best in the world over a consistent period of time and that has been his drive.
“My feeling is that over the last 18 months in the camps that he's been with us he has shown that he has got the desire to take that into a team environment and he recognises the importance of bringing others with him.
“Of course, Harry will need the support of the other good leaders that we have got around him. You don't become a top team by just having a good captain with good values because that has got to spread right throughout the group but I think he is the one who is ready to take that challenge on.”