The Argentina striker now has 177 goals for City, matching Eric Brook's tally.
Aguero, who signed for City in 2011, has matched a record that took 11 years to set in little over six years.
Brook scored his final goal for City in 1939, meaning his marker has stood for 78 years.
Aguero kicked off his City career by scoring twice on his debut, against Swansea City in August 2011, and ended his first campaign in English football by scoring perhaps the most dramatic goal in the league's history; the last-gasp winner against Queens Park Rangers which clinched the Blues' first title since 1968.
That was his 30th goal in all competitions that season, and he has scored at least 28 goals in five of his six full seasons in England.
Last season under Pep Guardiola he scored 34 times in all competitions, more than he scored in a single campaign under Roberto Mancini or Manuel Pellegrini.
He began the current campaign needing eight goals to match Brook's record and nine to beat it, and he has managed those eight in his first nine appearances.