The effort was the Uruguay hitman's 157th in all competitions for the Parisian side, taking him clear of the previous mark, which was set by Zlatan Ibrahimovic.
After good work from Neymar and Adrien Rabiot in the build up, Cavani slotted home his 27th goal of the campaign, achieved in his 31st appearance.
In celebrating the goal, Cavani took his shirt off and ran into the crowd, who refused to give him it back. Once he was finally able to restart, referee Frank Schneider shook his hand before presenting him with a memento of a yellow card.
The 30-year-old's goals have been amassed in only four-and-a-half seasons in the French capital, during which time he has often been forced to play out wide in an unfavoured position on the wing.
Nevertheless, that has not prevented 'El Matador' from being a potent scoring threat since arriving from Napoli in the summer of 2013 for a fee of €60 million.
Cavani has managed at least 25 goals in all compeitions since moving to France, including a stunning 49 in 50 starts last term - the first he had the opportunity to lead the line in regularly.
Edinson Cavani's record goal for PSG wasn't one of his all-time best, but his celebration was an absolute epic! pic.twitter.com/AerMk1HjQ0— Goal (@goal) January 27, 2018
No other present PSG players feature on the top scorers list, and only two other strikers have scored a century of goals.
Portuguese striker Pauleta netted 109 goals at PSG, while Dominique Rocheteau scored 100 between 1980 and 1987.
Mustapha Dahleb spent 10 years at the club between 1974 and 1984 and scored 98 goals, while Francois M'Pele scored 95 in the 1970s.
Safet Susic (85), Rai (72) and Carlos Bianchi (71) also feature on the list, while the top 10 is rounded out by Guillaume Hoarau, the only other active professional footballer in the rankings, who scored 56 goals between 2008 and 2013. He currently plays for Young Boys in Switzerland.