Lille president Gerard Lopez told AFP that Anelka will "work with players ranging from 14 years up to the reserve team".
The former striker, 39, retired from football in 2015 after a trophy-laden career that saw him represent some of Europe's biggest clubs, including PSG, Arsenal, Real Madrid, Liverpool, Manchester City, Chelsea and Juventus.
Anelka also earned 69 caps for France and has returned to his home country 16 years after departing PSG to join Man City in 2002.
Lille coach Christophe Galtier has said that Anelka is looking forward to working with the club's young attackers, and is happy to do so at a smaller club out of the spotlight.
"Nicolas is really enthusiastic," Galtier said.
"He wants to stay out of the spotlight and bring some of his striking expertise and know-how to our young players.
"But for the moment he does not want to get involved with the professionals."
Anelka finished his career with Indian club Mumbai City, where he briefly took on a role as player-manager.