Les Bleus went down to two first-half goals in ten minutes, with Kaan Ayhan opening the scoring before Cengiz Under doubled Turkey's advantage.
World Cup holders France failed to muster a single shot on target across the 90 minutes despite fielding a strong side, and the defeat leaves them three points behind the Turks in Group H.
Deschamps made a double change at half-time, bringing off Blaise Matuidi and Lucas Digne for Kingsley Coman and Ferland Mendy, but to no avail
After the game the head coach, who has won the World Cup as a player and a manager - one of just three men to do so - wasted no time in laying the blame for defeat at the door of his players.
“When there is a collective performance like this, there is nothing to retain positive,” the 50-year-old told TF1 .
“We did not play our game against a team that played as they like, and we were not present.
“If we play with no intentions, even though we are world champions, this is what happens.
“We took a good slap tonight and we will analyse it. There is nothing else to say.
“Congratulations to Turkey and we should return to our basics.”
In February of this year they turned to Senol Gunes, who oversaw the side the last time they did make the World Cup in 2002.
The turnaround in form has been marked, and they have now won all five games during his second spell in charge.
This result is the most impressive of that run, which has seen wins over relative minnows Albania, Moldova and Uzbekistan, with a friendly win over Greece Gunes’ biggest previous scalp.