The impact injury was sustained during a training session at Melwood on Friday, with a scan revealing no fracture or break to any bone or ligament.
While that diagnosis is a relief for the club, the midfielder will face a struggle to shrug off the issue in time to feature against Arsenal at Anfield over the weekend.
Henderson will be closely monitored through his course of rehabilitation, with no timeframe attached to his absence.
The 26-year-old operates as Jurgen Klopp’s controller when in possession, dictating the tempo of the side’s play as well as determining the direction of their attacks.
Without the ball, he is the Reds’ primary defence from counters as he organises himself and his team-mates to rob the opposition and turn them around.
Liverpool have struggled to fully assert themselves in Henderson’s absence this season and will hope his spell on the sidelines will be at a minimum.
Klopp has previously referenced the club's lack of luck in the campaign, with "injuries in the wrong moment."