The PSG superstar, who missed out on a move to Barcelona when the transfer window shut on Monday, struck the equalising second goal in the 58th minute but he couldn't help his team secure the win in the friendly match despite playing the entire 90 minutes.
After Philippe Coutinho's expertly weighted pass set Dani Alves free down the right, Neymar was in perfect position at the back post to find the net as his former Blaugrana team-mate lashed the ball across the face of goal.
It was Neymar's 61st goal in 98 international appearances - moving within one of second-placed Ronaldo as Pele (77) continues to hold Brazil's record - and his first strike in any competition since the opener in PSG's 2-1 victory over SCO Angers on May 11.
The match was the first played by the 27-year-old since he ruptured his ankle ligaments against Qatar on June 6 - an injury that kept him out of Brazil's triumphant Copa America campaign on home soil.
Earlier, Casemiro had given the Selecao a one-goal advantage with a clinical header from Neymar's corner on 19 minutes after Colombia looked the better side in the opening stages.
The Colombians hit back seven minutes later from the spot through Luis Muriel - after a foul was given against Alex Sandro - before the winger got his second goal shortly after, with a superb low finish past Ederson, who was in the team instead of the injured Alisson.
It was all Brazil in the second half and they were duly rewarded when Neymar finished off the move that was brilliantly created by Coutinho dropping deep into midfield.
However, they could not find the winner with Napoli goalkeeper David Ospina regularly repelling chances on his goal.
Tite's Brazil are now 17 matches without defeat in a streak dating back to the nation's 2018 World Cup elimination at the hands of Belgium.
Their next fixture is another friendly match in the U.S as they host Peru in at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum on September 10.