The Argentine is only the third player in the Premier League era to reach the goal tally for a single club.
Aguero etched his name into history after finding the back of the net during City's league clash against Southampton on Sunday.
Very happy for this win and for scoring my 150th goal on the @premierleague with this great club. A big thanks to all the team and fans for their support. And we're going for even more! #mancity pic.twitter.com/ihFD7qc55q — Sergio Kun Aguero (@aguerosergiokun) November 4, 2018
Aguero still has some way to go if he wants to catch both players, though, with Henry having scored 175 in total for Arsenal, while Rooney netted 183 for United.
150 - Manchester City's Sergio Aguero is just the third player to score 150 Premier League goals for a single club, after Thierry Henry for Arsenal (175) and Wayne Rooney for Manchester United (183). Legend. pic.twitter.com/zz8b5itXJD — OptaJoe (@OptaJoe) 4 November 2018
The forward scored on what was also his 217th league appearance for City, who he joined from Atletico Madrid in 2011.
Aguero has achieved a number of goalscoring highs for City in the last year, becoming the club's all-time top goalscorer against Napoli in November 2017.
150 - Sergio Aguero has scored his 150th Premier League goal in his 217th appearance - only Alan Shearer (212 games) has scored 150 in fewer games in Premier League history. Outstanding. pic.twitter.com/TqiC489TSv — OptaJoe (@OptaJoe) 4 November 2018
The striker also scored his 200th goal in all competitions for the Manchester club as they defeated Chelsea in the Community Shield in August.
Aguero's most recent effort against Southampton marks his 10th goal in all competitions for Pep Guardiola's side so far this season and draws him level with Eden Hazard and Pierre-Emerick Aubamayang on seven league goals.