Vieira and New York City are searching for a third designated player alongside captain David Villa and Andrea Pirlo following Frank Lampard's departure.
But it will not be 29-year-old Germany international and World Cup winner Khedira, who won the Scudetto last season.
"There is nothing I can say because he's not one of the players that we are targeting," Vieira said.
"I think he's playing in one of the biggest clubs in the world and he doesn't have any intentions yet to come to MLS."
Khedira has made 17 Serie A appearances this season with defending champions Juventus a point clear atop the table, though they have a game in hand.
As for New York City's hunt for a designated player, Vieira added: "We're having a conversation with some clubs, with some players. Hopefully we can finalise it as soon as possible.
"We have a few targets on the table and we want to be sure that we bring in the right player who can help the team, help the club get to a different level."