The 23-year-old scored 13 goals in 30 games to help Astana clinch their fourth consecutive title.
He amassed 54 per cent of the total votes cast, followed by Astana vice captain Dmitry Shomko, who raked 19 per cent while top scorer Junior Kabananga managed 10 per cent.
Ivan Mayevsky and Serikzhan Muzhikov had 4.6 and 3.4 per cent to finish in the fourth and fifth places respectively.
“Thanks to the fans for the overwhelming votes. I'm grateful for their love,” Twumasi said.
“Next season will be another packed moment so we will hope to at least repeat what happened in 2017. Since we have Europa League knockout stages fixture to honour, I'm still working hard for the games early next year,” he added.
Twumasi has now bagged three awards this year at Astana. He was named the club's overall best player in November while his goal against Ordabashy was voted by supporters as the best goal of the season.