The 26-year-old has signed a five-year-deal with the newly-promoted side, keeping him at the club until the summer of 2022.
He said of the deal: "I’m very happy to have signed. Newcastle United is a big club, and I’m very happy to be here.
“When you have a manager like Rafa Benitez who wants you, you are very happy to come. Since I’ve been in touch with the manager, it was an easy decision for me to come here.”
Manager Rafa Benitez told the official Newcastle website: “I would like to welcome Florian to Newcastle United. He is a player that has done very well this year in Spain.
"I have known about him for a while, since he began playing for Villarreal.
"He has progressed a lot as a player in the last few years and I know he will give us something different at the back - he is good with both feet, he's big and he's good in the air also.
"If he settles well into English football then I am sure he will be a success and will give us a lot of competition in this area.”