The defender started his European career with Norwegian Premier League side Tromsø in 2010 and twice came second to the best player of the league.
On the back of his showings in Norway, he was snapped up by Genk and helped them to win the 2013 Belgian Cup title in his first season.
In the summer of 2015, he moved to rivals Anderlecht for a fee of €4.5 million, signing a four-year deal and was part of the team that won the 2017 Belgian First Division A title.
However, last season, he was limited to 20 appearances across all competitions and left in an effort to secure more playing time.
On Thursday, the Canaries confirmed the acquisition of the 28-year-old after personal terms were agreed on.
“Kara Mbodji signs for FC Nantes! The Senegalese international is loaned to FC Nantes by RSC Anderlecht for the 2018-2019 season with an option to buy,” read a statement from club website.
“The Belgian champion 2017 will wear the yellow and green jersey [and has been given the] number 5.”
Mbodji could make his debut when Nantes take on Strasbourg in a league game on Saturday.