Manchester United defender Jones has struggled with fitness issues throughout his career and is now nursing another knock.
He will play no part in 2018 World Cup qualifiers against Slovenia and Lithuania as a result.
Delph has also been ruled out, with the Manchester City midfielder having to give up his spot after earning a recall under Gareth Southgate.
A statement on the Football Association’s official website read: “Delph and Jones had reported to St. George’s Park on Sunday evening but after being assessed before training on Monday, it was felt best they return to Manchester City and Manchester United respectively for treatment.”
With England seeing their ranks depleted, they have moved to promote Winks from the U21 squad.
The 21-year-old has impressed for Spurs when given senior minutes by Mauricio Pochettino, with 33 appearances taken in last season.
He has taken in another three outings this term and has done enough to convince Southgate of his worth.
The FA added: “The Tottenham Hotspur midfielder was initially named in Aidy Boothroyd’s U21 squad for their games with Scotland and Andorra and joined up with them on Sunday evening before training on Monday morning.
“But the 21-year-old will now move upstairs at St. George's Park to link up with Gareth Southgate’s seniors and will be part of the squad that travels to London on Tuesday ahead of Thursday’s World Cup qualifier against Slovenia at Wembley.”
The arrival of Winks within the senior squad means that Southgate has 25 players at his disposal.
He will, however, be without Dele Alli against Slovenia as the Spurs midfielder is forced to serve a one-game ban for his middle-finger salute during England’s last outing against Slovakia.