Goals from Nelson Oliveira, Gylfi Sigurdsson and Jack Cork sent the Swans to victory after they battled back from going behind to Ayoze Perez's 20th-minute opener at St James' Park.
Siem de Jong scored a second for Newcastle with three minutes to go to mark his first appearance since August, but Swansea held on to reach 50 points, surpassing their previous mark of 47 in their debut Premier League campaign in 2011-12.
"It's very satisfying," Monk said. "I'm extremely proud of the players and the staff, the fans - we should be extremely proud of this squad.
"I knew if we could get the players to commit we could achieve something special.
"Everyone plays their part, my job as manager is to make sure the football is right and make sure we compete.
"We've shown a lot of different sides to ourselves, but ultimately we've played some excellent football and I thought you saw that today, so I'm extremely proud of everyone."
Monk is, though, refusing to let up in the final few games of the campaign.
"I want more, I always push for more. I'm the type to demand more," he added. "My job now is to make sure we finish this season with more wins and more points.
"There's no point just beating the record, we want to try and surpass it and make it difficult for anyone to try and catch or for us to surpass it the next season.
"I'm proud of everyone, the work that we've done and when people doubt you it's a real pleasing thing to prove those doubters wrong."