The last time Adriano played for Brazil was back in February, in a 2-0 friendly win over Italy in London.
After that, he was called up for the qualifiers against Peru and Equador but was not used in either fixture, and failed to return to Inter, rescinding his contract with the Nerazzurri weeks later.
Adriano, who signed for Flamengo in May, has overcome his off-field problems and tops the scoring charts of the Brazilian league, together with Marcelinho Paraiba and Val Baiano.
Lucas, who has not played for the national team for almost a year, has also been selected for the squad after good displays at Liverpool.
On the left side of the defense, Deportivo la Coruna man Filipe Luis has been given another call-up as Real Madrid's Marcelo is injured.
Brazil will play against Argentina on September 5, in Rosario, welcoming Chile four days later at the Estadio de Pituacu in Salvador.
Goalkeepers: Julio Cesar (Inter Milan), Victor (Gremio);
Defenders: Andre Santos (Fenerbahce), Daniel Alves (Barcelona), Maicon (Inter), Filipe (Deportivo La Coruna), Lucio (Inter), Luisao (Benfica), Miranda (Sao Paulo), Juan (AS Roma);
Midfielders: Elano (Galatasaray), Felipe Melo (Juventus), Gilberto Silva (Panathinaikos), Josue (VfL Wolfsburg), Ramires (Benfica), Julio Baptista (AS Roma), Kaka (Real Madrid), Lucas (Liverpool);
Forwards: Luis Fabiano (Sevilla), Nilmar (Villarreal), Robinho (Manchester City), Adriano (Flamengo).
Luís Mira, Goal.com