The Ivorian had been training with the Black Cats over the last few weeks and the club have now signed up the 32-year-old for the remainder of the season.
The full-back was a free agent following his departure from Galatasaray at the end of last season, having won three league titles during a four-year spell in Turkey.
Eboue brings great Premier League experience to Sunderland, the defender having made over 100 appearances for Arsenal and is looking forward to play in the English top flight once again.
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"When I came here for the first time it felt like I’d been here already so I’m very happy to sign for the club," he told the club's official website.
"I was dreaming about it and thinking about it when I was in Turkey because I played here before, so I thank god, my new team-mates and also the staff and everybody else who took me in like a son.
"I also thank the manager who has given me a second chance, so I hope I can give my best for the club and also for him.
"It is going to be difficult as we’re at the bottom so we will fight hard to move up the table."