Ronaldo drew level with previous record-holder Luis Figo when he played in the 1-1 draw with Euro 2016 Group F opponents Iceland on Tuesday.
But the Real Madrid star is now in sole possession of the benchmark, having started in Paris.
It has been almost 13 years since Ronaldo made his senior international debut as a second-half substitute in a 1-0 victory over Kazakhstan in August 2003.
The 31-year-old has been Portugal's permanent captain since 2008 and is also his nation's record goalscorer with 58 strikes.
Portugal XI: Patricio, Vieirinha, Pepe, Carvalho, Guerreiro, Quaresma, Gomes, Carvalho, Moutinho, Nani, Ronaldo.
Austria XI: Almer; Klein, Hinteregger, Prodl, Fuchs; Baumgartlinger, Ilsanker, Alaba; Harnik, Arnautovic, Sabitzer.