The 20-year-old scored twice in the final 21 minutes to take his tally to 51 goals in just 88 Ligue 1 matches.
At the age of 20 years, two months and three days, Mbappe is the youngest player since to score a half-century of goals in Ligue 1, breaking Yannick Stopyra's mark of 21 years, 11 months and nine days, which he accomplished with Sochaux in 1982.
Mbappe currently tops the Ligue 1 scoring charts with 22 goals, five ahead of nearest challenger and teammate Edinson Cavani, who is currently sidelined with a calf injury.
In total the former Monaco forward has scored 27 goals in 31 matches in all competitions so far this campaign.
Christopher Nkunku converted Marco Verratti’s pass to give Paris Saint-Germain a half-time lead at the Parc des Princes, with Mbappe’s late double sealing a victory that extends their lead at the top of the table to 17 points.
Speaking after the game Mbappe said: “We were on a false rhythm and the Nimes team was well organised.
“I think Thomas Tuchel was able to have the right words with the players for the players to run for him. As I say, we have a long way to go so we must continue like this.
“I work hard every day to try to help my team. I try to have fun too - because football is still fun - and scoring goals, breaking records, that's what drives me.
“I always assume that one day someone will come and try to do better so you always have to go beyond your limits. The 51st? Yes, I wanted it but I also wanted the 52nd to have the ball."
It is yet another remarkable milestone for Mbappe, who is on course to win his third successive Ligue 1 title despite being barely out of his teens.
He became France’s youngest goalscorer at a major tournament when he scored against Peru at last summer’s World Cup in Russia. He also became the first teenager to score in a World Cup final since Pele in 1958, with France defeating Croatia 4-2 to lift the trophy for a second time.