Lille raced to a two-goal lead courtesy of goals from Jose Fonte and Jonathan Ikone before the 27-year-old reduced the deficit for the visitors.
With the Canaries heading for defeat, Miguel Cardoso brought on Coulibaly for Emiliano Sala in the 77th minutes, and five minutes later, the Malian justified his inclusion with a goal.
However, he was cautioned by referee Benoit Bastien in the 90th minute of the encounter.
The defeat sends Nantes to the 17th spot in the French elite division with five points from six outings.
They continue their chase for a second win of the season with a clash at home versus Nice on September 25.