Henderson's Three Lions team-mate were visibly furious with what they felt was a clear display of violent conduct, as were England fans across social media, while referee Mark Geiger viewed the incident as worthy of a yellow card only.
Speaking at half-time, former Premier League referee Clattenburg explained the referee's decision to caution Barrios but conceded that the US official made a mistake and that the Colombia man should have seen red.
"Clearly England aren't getting any justice with the VAR system," Clattenburg told ITV. "Clearly the referee hasn't seen it.
"The defender puts his head into Henderson's chest which is a yellow card. But then he moves his head up which is violent conduct.
"I'd rather see the referee go to the video review area and make the correct decision which was a red card."
Harry Kane fired England into a 1-0 lead after scoring a penalty midway through the second half, following a foul on him from a set piece.