The 31-year-old had been expected to complete a move to Dalian Yifang for a fee in the region of €15 million (£13m/$17m) this week.
However, Napoli have called a halt to the deal, blaming a problem with the agreed "payment methods", although they do not specify with which club in China they have been negotiating.
"Napoli have decided to suspend the sale of Marek Hamsik to the Chinese club because the methods of payment of the agreed amount do not line up with the agreements previously reached," the club said in a statement.
There is no indication as to whether the deal has collapsed entirely or if Hamsik's move may still go ahead. The Chinese transfer window is open until February 28.
Napoli head coach Carlo Ancelotti confirmed last week that Hamsik had asked to leave Napoli after 12 years at the club.
The Slovakia international midfielder has made 520 appearances for Napoli to date, managing one goal in 19 appearances this season.
If he was to eventually complete his move to Dalian Yifang, he'd join the likes of Nicolas Gaitan and Yannick Carrasco, who have also left European football for the Chinese club in recent years.
Club president Aurelio De Laurentiis said of the club's record goalscorer: "I have told Hamsik that this is his home. Even if he wants to come back, we'll be happy to welcome him back.
"It's a beautiful story. He has always done his duty. He is impeccable."