Jamie Vardy's late goal sealed a solid win for Roy Hodgson's side after Hakan Calhanoglu cancelled out Harry Kane's opener, with Kane also missing a penalty.
But England looked shaky at the back, with Joe Hart making a fine late save from Olcay Sahan's volley to keep his side in the lead, and Rose said improvements will be needed before the European Championship starts on June 10.
"We're definitely optimistic, but the message from the manager was we have to defend better if we're going to go anywhere in the European Championship," the Tottenham left-back said.
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"We'll give ourselves a good platform to build on in the Euros."
Rose was named the sponsors' man of the match after impressing with positive raids down the left flank and he confessed it is "surreal" to be representing his country.
"Four months ago I wouldn't have thought I would be in this position. It's surreal," Rose said.
"I'm trying to enjoy every minute and take my club form into international level. Thanks to my team-mates for helping me and making me feel comfortable.
"I'm thankful that I'm here. I had a good season at Spurs and that’s down to my team-mates and it's special for me to share this occasion with four Tottenham team-mates and it helps."