They also managed to win the Carabao Cup and FA Cup, completing an unprecedented domestic treble to continue their recent dominance of English football .
Guardiola's men did not fare quite so well in the Champions League, however, exiting the competition at the quarter-final stage at the hands of Tottenham.
The shock defeat marked the second year in a row City have been eliminated by English opposition at the last-eight stage, with Liverpool eventually going onto win the trophy by beating Spurs in the final.
Despite his side's continental failure, Guardiola has indicated that Premier League glory will continue to take precedence over progress in the Champions League.
"The league is always the most important championship," the City head coach told reporters in Spain.
"It makes you happier because as you win a lot, on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday, you are happy. When you lose in the Champions League, you are f**ked for two days. When you go badly in the league you are f**ked many more days."
Guardiola is still hopeful he can win a first European Cup since 2011 while in Manchester, though, and insists the players will keep "trying" to win an elusive crown.
"We all want to win the Champions League, it is a trophy that is decided at the end of the season and it is very prestigious," he added. "We all want to win but there is only one.
"At City we have been trying for five or six years and we will continue trying."
The ex-Barcelona manager also weighed in on Eden Hazard's transfer from Chelsea to Real Madrid , which brought to an end the Belgian's impressive seven-year spell in the Premier League.
Guardiola hinted Hazard will thrive in La Liga, after naming him as one of the "best players" of the modern era.
He stated: "Hazard is very good, one of the best players I've seen. Spanish football is going to have a lot of fun with Eden Hazard."