Mikel left Championship club Middlesbrough at the end of the 2018-19 season after the completion of his short-term deal and he is now set for his first adventure in the Turkish top-flight.
The former Chelsea midfielder agreed a two-year deal that will keep him at the Medical Park Arena until 2021 with an option for a further year.
He will team up with compatriots Ogenyi Onazi and Anthony Nwakaeme in Unal Karaman's squad and he is expected to boost the Black Sea Storm's midfield with his vast experience.
Trabzonspor are in contention for Europa League football next season after their fourth-place finish in the Turkish Super Lig in the 2018-19 campaign.
"A two-year and an additional year agreement was signed with the free captain of the Nigerian national team, John Obi Mikel, to transfer to our club," the club announced.