The 18-year-old opened the scoring as Monaco beat Manchester City 3-1 at the Stade Louis II on Tuesday, helping the Ligue 1 club progress to the Champions League quarter-finals via the away goals rule after a thrilling tie ended 6-6 on aggregate.
It was Mbappe's 11th goal in his past 11 appearances in all competitions and he comes into Didier Deschamps' squad having represented France and Under-17 and Under-19 level.
Mbappe's team-mate, 22-year-old left-back Benjamin Mendy, joins his colleague in being called up for the first time, as does fellow France Under-21 defender and Paris Saint-Germain centre-back Presnel Kimpembe.
Lyon midfielder Corentin Tolisso and Marseille's on-loan Newcastle United forward Florian Thauvin will also have the opportunity to press for international debuts after being rewarded by Deschamps for impressive club form.
France sit top of Group A in the European qualifiers for Russia 2018, with their position unlikely to come under threat when they travel to minnows Luxembourg in the forthcoming round of fixtures before hosting Spain in a friendly at the Stade de France on March 28.