Tottenham loanee Lo Celso lasted until the 53rd minute of the bruising 0-0 draw, during which 10 yellow cards were handed out.
The 23-year-old was left beating the turf in anguish when Charles Aranguiz caught him above the foot with a crude studs-up tackle in the first half.
Referee Jair Marrufo opted against sanctioning the Chile midfielder for a second time, having booked him in the seventh minute.
The Argentine Football Association later suggested Lo Celso had suffered a groin problem, but the former Paris Saint-Germain midfielder provided a positive update after the match.
"It was only a blow, nothing to worry about," he said.
Lo Celso almost made the breakthrough for Argentina when he volleyed marginally wide of Claudio Bravo's goal shortly before the interval.
Inter forward Lautaro Martinez also threatened regularly but the sides could not be separated.
"We deserved a bit more. We had a lot of chances to score but it wasn't to be," Lo Celso added.
"We had a good game, generally speaking. The first half was where we had the most chances. We created some good opportunities with a lot of people in attack.
"We were up against a very tough opponent and we were up to their level."
Lionel Scaloni selected a youthful squad for the Albiceleste's first outing since the Copa America and felt the less-experienced players adapted well to the international arena.
"We wanted to give the younger players minutes," the Argentina boss said.
"With the game in progress, they usually enter much calmer. That was the idea. It makes me happy that the new players didn't notice the weight of the shirt.
"We always want to win but the important thing was the performance, which was good at times."
The Albiceleste return to action with a second international friendly against Mexico at the Alamodome on Wednesday, September 11.