Vincent Aboubakar's excellent 88th-minute strike clinched a 2-1 victory for Cameroon, who had cancelled out Mohamed Elneny's first-half opener through Nicolas N'Koulou's header.
Broos' preparation for the tournament was hampered by seven players, including Liverpool's Joel Matip, turning down a place in the squad, while he has come in for criticism for deploying a number of young players.
But having claimed the title, the Belgian felt vindicated and insisted his side can continue to grow and reach new levels.
Broos told a media conference: "It's true that when I came to Cameroon a year ago I found a group of players who were not motivated so I had to change that.
"They were coming not to play for the national team but because they had to, because the coach asked them to come. So I changed the group a little bit and put some young players in and we started working and doing a good job.
"We have a team that is still not on the highest level. We can be better, but I think it is only the beginning.
"I am happy for the group, for the players. This is not a group of football players, this is a group of friends. That's why the players who are on the bench keep motivation. Against Senegal, against Ghana and today against Egypt, these players made the difference.
"What really matters to me is results. I am delighted that we have won this trophy. This shows we have worked well - especially during the last months.
"What I told people when I came to Cameroon was that people have to be patient and correct and fair.
"I have no problem when a journalist criticises my choices, but when you are criticising you have to be objective so I hope that now we have won the trophy, I hope our relationship [Broos and the media] will be correct."