The 25-year-old only made his comeback from injury in the 4-1 Premier League win over West Ham on November 4, but was called up for this month's international matches despite his lack of playing time.
Mane played in the win over South Africa on Friday, a result that secured Senegal's place at the World Cup, setting up Diafra Sakho's goal in the 2-0 victory in Polokwane.
The Senegalese Football Federation have since confirmed the forward has been sent back to Liverpool for treatment on what they describe as "his old injury".
"Following the South Africa against Senegal match on Friday, November 10 in Polokwane, the player Sadio Mane slightly felt his old injury," a statement read.
"After consultations between the medical staff of the Senegal national team and Liverpool, it was decided by mutual agreement to make him available to his club with a view to continuing treatment until full recovery."