Maradona joined Dorados in September with the club struggling near the bottom of the table, but he helped inspire a significant turnaround in fortunes, taking them to the final of the Apertura play-offs.
Dorados were 1-0 up from the first leg – a match in which Maradona was sent to the stands for reportedly threatening opposition coach Alfonso Sosa – and took a 2-0 aggregate lead in the 32nd minute on Monday.
But San Luis won 3-2 in regulation 90 minutes and then clinched promotion from Ascenso MX in extra time, with the suspended Maradona watching helplessly from the stands.
After the match, Maradona was shepherded by Dorados staff and security personnel through a corridor filled with San Luis fans, who chanted songs about the 58-year-old's weight.
Videos posted to social media appeared to show the Argentine aiming a punch at one supporter, before being bundled into a lift.
ESPN Deportes reported that Maradona shouted: "Come here! I want him to tell me that to my face. I want you to tell me to my face."
Jorge Cordoba gave Dorados a 2-0 aggregate lead on the night, before Nicolas Ibanez scored San Luis' first goal in the tie on the stroke of half-time.
Edson Rivera restored the lead for Maradona's side, and gave them a 3-1 lead on aggregate, only for an own goal from Diego Barbosa to again give San Luis hope.
Ian Gonzalez levelled up the tie on 75 minutes, and Leandro Torres scored the winner in the 103rd minute.
Dorados finished seventh in the regular season, while San Luis finished fifth.
Maradona's men beat Zacatecas in the quarter-finals of the play-offs, and then defeated first-placed Juarez in the semi-finals, before their defeat to San Luis.