Alphonso Davies' errant elbow to the face of Georg Margreitter gifted full-back Leibold the chance to be the hero for the relegation-threatened hosts, but his spot-kick came back off the inside of the post.
Kingsley Coman then failed to convert a breakaway one-on-one in a frantic finish to a contest that ended with Bayern inching two points clear of Borussia Dortmund at the top.
Serge Gnabry had earlier struck in the 75th minute to cancel out Matheus Pereira's opener and, though they were let off the hook late on, Niko Kovac may well view the result as two points dropped following Dortmund's loss to Schalke on Saturday.
David Alaba tested Christian Mathenia in the 22nd minute and the goalkeeper proved up to the task, tipping a fine free-kick onto the crossbar.
Sven Ulreich - again deputising for the injured Manuel Neuer - looked less convincing when forced to scramble Mats Hummels' mis-placed pass away from Mikael Ishak.
The deadlock remained intact at half-time after the referee deemed Ewerton to have legally challenged Joshua Kimmich in the Nurnberg box.
Match official Tobias Stieler delayed the restart in response to Bayern fans lighting flares, but Nurnberg made the breakthrough in the 48th minute.
Ulreich parried Eduard Lowen's tame initial effort only as far as winger Pereira, who curled a classy follow-up finish into the bottom left corner.
Bayern increased the tempo and, after the bar kept out a James Rodriguez free-kick, the visitors found a fortuitous equaliser, Robert Bauer's attempted clearance bouncing in off substitute Gnabry.
The woodwork ultimately proved an ally to Kovac's men as Leibold's failure to convert from 12 yards and Coman's subsequent inability to beat Mathenia when clean through on goal meant the points were shared.
Bundesliga English (@Bundesliga_EN) April 28, 2019
What does it mean? Door swings ajar for Dortmund
It was a rollercoaster clash at Max-Morlock-Stadion and the happiest man at the end of it all will be Lucien Favre.
The Dortmund boss declared his team's title tilt over after a Revierderby defeat, but Bayern's slip-up here keeps them in touch as the finish line approaches.
Nurnberg indebted to Mathenia
Bayern profited from a slice of good luck at one end and were frustrated by a lone figure at the other.
Mathenia thwarted the visitors on several occasions and stood tall when it mattered most, making himself big to unnerve Coman for the game's final chance.
Coman squanders glorious chance
France winger Coman was unable to get the better of right-back Bauer for long periods and must shoulder the blame for producing a poor finish with the match up for grabs deep into added time.