The Barcelona forward is among a number of Selecao stars that coach Tite insists need a break following a gruelling calendar and will miss the Brasil Global Tour double-header in Melbourne next month.
"We try to balance the side, instead of win at any cost," said Brazil's physical preperation specialist Fabio Mahseredjian of Neymar's absece - the Barcelona man has not had a full end-of-season break since 2013.
With Miranda also left out, Paris Saint-Germain’s Thiago Silva will have a chance to prove he is worthy of a starting role after being a regular reserve under Tite.
Manchester City star Gabriel Jesus returns after missing March’s World Cup qualifiers through injury, and could be joined by Shakhtar Donetsk’s Taison who will be desperate to make an impression.
"The emotional side of the game drains us... the adrenaline is at a million every single day, the players need mental rest," Tite said of his new-look squad.
"There is a team-building and there is consolidation, but this is about construction at the moment."
Brazil meet Argentina on June 9 at the Melbourne Cricket Ground before facing Australia in the same venue on June 13.
Brazil squad in full
Goalkeepers : Diego Alves (Valencia), Weverton (Atletico-PR), Ederson (Benfica).
Defenders : David Luiz (Chelsea), Gil (Shandong Luneng), Jemerson (Monaco), Rodrigo Caio (Sao Paulo), Thiago Silva (PSG), Alex Sandro (Juventus), Fagner (Corinthians), Filipe Luis (Atletico Madrid), Rafinha (Bayern).
Midfielders : Fernandinho (Manchester City), Giuliano (Zenit), Lucas Lima (Santos), Paulinho (Guangzhou Evergrande), Coutinho (Liverpool), Renato Augusto (Beijing Guoan), Rodriginho (Corinthians), Willian (Chelsea).
Fowrads : Diego Souza (Sport), Douglas Costa (Bayern Munich), Gabriel Jesus (Manchester City), Taison (Shakhtar).