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There is nothing more exciting in the world of football every summer than the European transfer window. This year's edition was no different, with a number of blockbuster deals involving the likes of Eden Hazard to Real Madrid, Matthijs de Ligt to Juventus and Frenkie de Jong to Barcelona.
After the transfer window closed in all of Europe’s big five leagues on September 2, Goal has once again produced the Transfer Market power rankings, which have been updated every Monday during the window.
Our ranks the top 20 teams in Europe – according to UEFA's Club Coefficient of 2018-19 – from worst to best, based on their transfer business this summer.
The main criteria used to judge each team’s dealings include the following: the quality and value for money of the players signed; retaining important first-team players; raising money by selling players who are surplus to requirements; overall net spend and the improvement of the overall first team and squad.
#20 Shakhtar DonetskKey signings: Yevhan Konoplyanka (undisclosed from Schalke)
Key departures: Ivan Petriak (€1.6m to Fehervar), Ivan Ordets (free to Dynamo Moscow), Oleg Danchenko (free to Rubin Kazan)
The Ukrainian champions have seen their Portuguese coach Paulo Fonseca move on to Roma and compatriot Luis Castro hired as his replacement.
Former Porto boss Castro made one important signing on deadline day with Ukrainian international Yevhan Konoplyanka returning to his home country from Schalke.
Though they lost the Ukrainian Super Cup to start their domestic season, Shakhtar Donetsk have begun their league campaign strongly by winning their first six games.
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Key signings: Mateo Kovacic (€45m from Real Madrid), Christian Pulisic (loan return from Dortmund)
Key departures: Eden Hazard (€100m to Real Madrid), Ola Aina (€10m to Torino), Tomas Kalas (€9m to Bristol City), David Luiz (€8.5m to Arsenal), Kenneth Omeruo (€5m to Leganes), Ethan Ampadu (loan to RB Leipzig), Danny Drinkwater (loan to Burnley), Davide Zappacosta (loan to Roma), Eduardo (free to Braga), Gary Cahill (free to Crystal Palace), Rob Green (retired)
Chelsea's transfer window was headlined by the loss of the club's superstar Eden Hazard to Real Madrid. With a transfer ban hindering their incoming moves in the market, the Blues have started the season with both Mason Mount and Tammy Abraham in the first-team picture.
New boss Frank Lampard has opted to make the loan of Mateo Kovacic (pictured) permanent, while January signing Christian Pulisic is an exciting addition.
Unsurprisingly, the club decided against making Gonzalo Higuain's loan deal permanent, with the Argentine striker having struggled during his six-month stay in west London.
The surprise sale of David Luiz to Arsenal on England's deadline day also leaves the Blues short of an experienced defender – and their shortcomings at the back have already been exposed.
Chelsea have claimed their first win of the season against Norwich in an unconvincing 3-2 victory but then stumbled last weekend with a 2-2 draw versus Sheffield United.
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Key signings: Shoya Nakajima (€12m from Al Duhail), Mateus Uribe (€9m from Club America), Ze Luis (€8.5m from Spartak Moscow), Luis Diaz (€7m from Junior FC), Mamadou Loum (€7.5m from Braga), Agustin Marchesin (€7.5m from America), Renzo Saravia (€5.5m from Racing Club), Ivan Marcano (€3m from Roma)
Key departures: Eder Militao (€50m to Real Madrid), Felipe (€20m to Atletico Madrid), Oliver Torres (€12m to Sevilla), Galeno (€3.5m to Braga), Jose Sa (€2.5m to Olympiacos), Hector Herrera (free to Atletico Madrid), Yacine Brahimi (free to Al Rayyan)
It could be a season of transition for Porto after failing to win the league or either domestic cup last time out. Central defenders Eder Militao (pictured) and Felipe have joined Madrid clubs Real and Atletico, respectively, while the latter has also snapped up Hector Herrera on a free.
Oliver Torres has also headed to Spain to link up with Sevilla. The loss of exciting Algerian winger Yacine Brahimi on a free transfer is a big one and it's safe to say the standard of the arrivals hasn’t matched those who have left.
Colombian midfielder Mateus Uribe has joined from Club America and he'll be eager to prove himself in Europe, while Japanese attacker Shoya Nakajima looms as somewhat of a gamble.
Porto have also missed out on the Champions League this season after falling to Krasnodar in qualifying.
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Key signings: Malcom (€40m from Barcelona), Douglas Santos (€12m from Hamburg), Aleksey Sutormin (€2.5m from Rubin Kazan), Daniil Kruhovoy (€2m from Ufa), Aleksandr Vasyutin (€0.7m from Sarpsborg 08)
Key departures: Miha Mevlja (€4m from Sochi), (Elmir Nabiullin (€3m to Sochi), Dmitri Poloz (€3m to Sochi), Luka Djordjevic (€2.5m to Lokomotiv Moscow), Hernani (loan to Parma), Luis Neto (free to Sporting CP), Claudio Marchisio (released), Aleksandr Korkorin (ban)
After being crowned Russian champions last season, Zenit began the transfer window relatively quietly but have announced themselves in a big way with their recent acquisition of Malcom (pictured).
The former Barcelona winger has made the bold move to Russia after failing to fire in Spain and could give Zenit's attack a real X-factor.
Malcom will link up with fellow Brazilian recruit Douglas Santos as the duo look to inspire Zenit to greater heights in Europe.
Key signings: Sepp van den Berg (€1.9m from PEC Zwolle), Adrian (free from West Ham), Harvey Elliott (undisclosed from Fulham)
Key departures: Danny Ings (€22m to Southampton), Simon Mignolet (€8m to Club Brugge), Ryan Kent (€7m to Rangers), Bobby Duncan (€2m to Fiorentina), Marko Grujic (loan to Hertha BSC), Harry Wilson (loan to Bournemouth), Alberto Moreno (free to Villarreal), Daniel Sturridge (free to Trabzonspor)
Jurgen Klopp admitted his side couldn't spend big this summer, thus ruling out the kind of big-money deals that brought Virgil van Dijk and Alisson to Anfield last year.
Though nearly tripling their investment with the sale of Danny Ings to Southampton, the Reds have made just three senior signings in the form of Dutch defender Sepp van den Berg, former West Ham keeper Adrian and Fulham forward Harvey Elliott, who became the Premier League's youngest ever player when he made his debut for the Cottagers last season.
The Champions League holders' off-season losses have been minimal, with Daniel Sturridge (pictured) departing after six years and goalkeeper Simon Mignolet sold to Club Brugge for €8m (£7.3m/$8.9m).
Young duo Ryan Kent and Bobby Duncan also left the club on deadline day for relatively small sums.
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Key signings: Quincy Promes (€15.7m from Sevilla), Edson Alvarez (€15m from America), Razvan Marin (€12.5 from Standard Liege), Lisandro Martinez (€7m from Defensa), Kik Pierie (€5m from Heerenveen), Kjell Scherpen (€1.5m from FC Emmen)
Key departures: Matthijs de Ligt (€75m to Juventus), Frenkie de Jong (€75m to Barcelona), Kasper Dolberg (€20.5m to Nice), Maximilian Wober (€10.5m to Sevilla), Rasmus Kristensen (€5m to RB Salzburg), Daley Sinkgraven (€5m to Bayer Leverkusen), Lasse Schone (€1.5m to Genoa)
Ajax's extraordinary run to the Champions League semi-finals has come at a cost, with star youngsters Matthijs de Ligt and Frenkie de Jong (pictured) leaving for Juventus and Barcelona, respectively. The combined €150 million fee received for the duo has allowed the Eredivisie champions to acquire players such as Quincy Promes, who struggled on the big stage at Sevilla, and Mexico international centre-back Edson Alvarez.
The club will be pleased to have held on to midfield linchpin Donny van de Beek, but did lose striker Kasper Dolberg to Nice in the latter stages of the window.
David Neres and Hakim Ziyech recently signed contract extensions to secure their immediate futures in Amsterdam.
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#14 Manchester United
Key signings: Harry Maguire (€87m from Leicester City) Aaron Wan-Bissaka (€55m from Crystal Palace), Daniel James (€17m from Swansea City)
Key departures: Romelu Lukaku (€65m to Inter), Matteo Darmian (€1.5m to Parma), Chris Smalling (€3m loan to Roma), Alexis Sanchez (loan to Inter), Antonio Valencia (free to LDU Quito), Ander Herrera (free to PSG), James Wilson (free to Aberdeen)
Manchester United's summer transfer window ended with the long-awaited and crucial arrival of Harry Maguire. While not coming cheap, the centre-back has had a decent start to life at Old Trafford, but will be looking to improve with the team only keeping one clean sheet in their first four games.
Aaron Wan-Bissaka (pictured), meanwhile, has also hit the ground running after signing for the club with the 21-year-old right-back quickly catching the eye.
The loss of Ander Herrera on a free to PSG is a huge blow for the Red Devils however, with the club unable to sign a midfield replacement.
Romelu Lukaku's sale to Inter also leaves Ole Gunner Solskjaer short of established strikers but the club will be happy they were able to recoup the majority of the fee they initially spent on the Belgian.
Alexis Sanchez, Chris Smalling and Matteo Darmian also joined in the exodus from Old Trafford before the transfer window shut leaving United's squad looking somewhat slim with the trio also failing to net the club any significant transfer fees.
Key signings: Leonardo Spinazzola (€29.5m from Juventus), Pau Lopez (€23.5m from Real Betis), Bryan Cristante (€21m from Atalanta), Amadou Diawara (€21m from Napoli), Mert Cetin (€3m from Genclerbirligi), Chris Smalling (loan from Manchester United), Henrikh Mkhitaryan (loan from Arsenal), Gianluca Mancini (loan from Atalanta), Davide Zappacosta (loan from Chelsea), Nikola Kalinic (loan from Atletico Madrid), Jordan Veretout (loan from Fiorentina), Ruben Providence (undisclosed from PSG)
Key departures: Kostas Manolas (€36m to Napoli), Luca Pellegrini (€22m to Juventus), Stephan El Shaarawy (€16m to Shanghai Shenhua), Gerson (€11.8m to Flamengo), Ivan Marcano (€3m to Porto), Ezequiel Ponce (€3m to Spartak Moscow), Daniele De Rossi (free to Boca Juniors)
It's not looking like it will be a smooth first season in charge for new Giallorossi coach Paulo Fonseca, with several key players leaving a side that finished sixth in Serie A last season. Spiritual leader Daniele De Rossi has left in acrimonious circumstances (just like director and fellow club legend Francesco Totti before him), with the midfielder completing a dream move to Boca Juniors, while Roma's best defender, Kostas Manolas, has joined rivals Napoli.
In addition, the riches on offer in China convinced the club's 2018-19 top scorer, Stephen El Shaarawy, to move to Shanghai Shenhua.
With defenders Luca Pellegrini and Ivan Marcano also departing, Fonseca initially focused on defensive reinforcements, with Leonardo Spinazzola (pictured) joining from Juventus and goalkeeper Pau Lopez leaving Real Betis to become the club’s new No.1. Young defender Gianluca Mancini – signed from Atalanta – has promise and Turkish centre-half Mert Cetin has joined.
The capital club did their best transfer work with short-term signings in the latter stages of the window with three loan captures from Premier League clubs - Chris Smalling (Man Utd), Henrikh Mkhitaryan (Arsenal) and David Zappacosta (Chelsea) - while Nikola Kalinic also crossed over from Altetico Madrid for a season.
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Key signings: Hirving Lozano (€38m from PSV), Kostas Manolas (€36m from Roma), Alex Meret (€22m from Udinese), Eljif Elmas (€16m from Fenerbahce), Giovanni Di Lorenzo (€8m from Empoli), David Ospina (€3.5m from Arsenal), Orestis Karnezis (€2.5m from Udinese), Fernando Llorente (free transfer from Tottenham)
Key departures: Amadou Diawara (€21m to Roma), Carlos Vinicius (€17m to Benfica), Raul Albiol (€5m to Villarreal), Roberto Inglese (loan to Parma), Roberto Insigne (€1.5m to Benevento)
Having coped well with the loss of Maurizio Sarri last season to finish second in Serie A, Napoli will be dreaming of getting closer to serial champions Juventus this term.
The high-profile arrival of Kostas Manolas will ensure a top-quality centre-back partnership with the brilliant Kalidou Koulibaly. Selling Amadou Diawara leave for €21 million also represents excellent business, considering he played just 13 Serie A games last season.
Napoli focused on bringing in some firepower in attack, as well as ensuring they retain the services of jewels like Koulibaly, Fabian Ruiz and Lorenzo Insigne. While they missed out on Nicolas Pepe, Napoli have signed Mexican star Hirving Lozano (pictured) from PSV and also nabbed striker Fernando Llorente on a free transfer on deadline day.
Key signings: Jules Kounde (€25m from Bordeaux), Rony Lopes (€25m from Monaco), Munas Dabbur (€15 from RB Salzburg), Lucas Ocampos (€15m from Marseille), Diego Carlos (€15m from Nantes), Joan Jordan (€14m from Eibar), Luuk de Jong (€12.5m from PSV), Oliver Torres (€12m from Porto), Maximilian Wober (€10.5m from Ajax), Chicharito (€7.75m from West Ham), Fernando (€4.5m from Galatasaray), Sergio Reguilon (loan from Real Madrid)
Key departures: Wissam Ben Yedder (€40m to Monaco), Pablo Sarabia (€18m to PSG), Quincy Promes (€15.7m to Ajax), Maximilian Wober (€12m to Red Bull Salzburg), Luis Muriel (€15m to Atalanta), Gabriel Mercado (free to Al Rayyan)
Labouring to a sixth-placed finish in La Liga last season, Sevilla haven’t wasted any time looking to revitalise their squad.
Among several notable arrivals, the most expensive has so far been Jules Kounde – a young French defender with the potential to become a real rock in Spain. Bringing in Real Madrid left-back Sergio Reguilon also appears a smart move by the club. Pablo Sarabia is a big loss in attack, however, with the Spaniard scoring 23 goals across all competitions last season.
Last season's top scorer Wissam Ben Yedder, who struck 18 times in La Liga, has also moved on to Monaco, with Chicharito (pictured) coming in the other way from West Ham on deadline day.
Portuguese winger Rony Lopes joined from Monaco early on in the window to boost the team's depth out wide.
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Key signings: Tanguy Ndombele (€60m from Lyon), Ryan Sessegnon (€27m from Fulham), Giovani Lo Celso (loan from Real Betis) Jack Clarke (€11m from Leeds)
Key departures: Kieran Trippier (€22m to Atletico Madrid), Vincent Janssen (€6.3m to Monterrey), Michel Vorm (released), Fernando Llorente (released), Jack Clarke (loaned back to Leeds)
Having gone 18 months without a new signing, Tottenham finally re-entered the transfer battlefield this summer and made an immediate impact by signing Lyon midfielder Tanguy Ndombele (pictured). Though an expensive acquisition, the 22-year-old Frenchman is exactly what Mauricio Pochettino’s side need and scored a crucial goal on his Premier League debut against Aston Villa. Jack Clarke also looms as a handy future prospect but was loaned straight back to Leeds.
Spurs' business as the transfer window closed was impressive as they landed talented youngster Ryan Sessegnon along with Real Betis midfielder Giovani Lo Celso. They were, however, unable to pull off the dream signing of Paulo Dybala from Juventus.
Tottenham’s losses were also relatively minimal over the summer with the transfer of Kieran Trippier to Atletico being the only significant departure.
Remarkably, Christian Eriksen is still at the club despite expressing his interest in a move just after the end of last season.
#9 Manchester City
Key signings: Rodri (€70m from Atletico), Joao Cancelo (€65m from Juventus), Angelino (€12m from PSV), Zack Steffen (€8m from Columbus Crew)
Key departures: Danilo (€37m to Juventus), Douglas Luiz (€16.7m to Aston Villa), Fabian Delph (€10m to Everton), Pablo Mari (€1.3m to Flamengo), Vincent Kompany (free to Anderlecht)
Only a few slight tweaks have been made to a Manchester City squad shooting for three straight league titles. Rodri (pictured) has been identified as the perfect replacement for the ageing Fernandinho in midfield, while Angelino has returned to the club as left-back depth given Benjamin Mendy's propensity for picking up injuries.
Juventus right-back Joao Cancelo arrived at the Etihad as the Premier League deadline neared, with Danilo and €28 million heading to Turin in return.
Club captain Vincent Kompany has moved to Anderlecht to be player-manager and his leadership will be sorely missed both on and off the pitch. Star winger Leroy Sane has been linked with a return to Germany with Bayern Munich but his ACL injury looks to have scuppered that transfer. Meanwhile, talented midfielder Douglas Luiz has departed for Aston Villa.
Nonetheless, Pep Guardiola is content with the depth and quality of his panel of players and appears to be only short of another option at centre-half.
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#8 Atletico Madrid
Key signings: Joao Felix (€126m from Benfica), Marcos Llorente (€30m from Real Madrid), Mario Hermoso (€25m from Espanyol), Kieran Trippier (€22m from Tottenham), Felipe (€20m from Porto), Renan Lodi (€20m from Atletico PR), Hector Herrera (free from Porto)
Key departures: Antoine Griezmann (€120m to Barcelona), Lucas Hernandez (€80m to Bayern Munich), Rodri (€70m to Manchester City), Gelson Martins (€30m to Monaco), Luciano Vietto (€7.5m to Sporting CP), Bernard Mensah (€3.6m to Kayserispor), Diego Godin (free to Inter), Juanfran (released), Filipe Luis (free to Flamengo)
Change is in the air at Wanda Metropolitano with stars Antoine Griezmann, Lucas Hernandez and Rodri all leaving for huge sums of money this summer, providing Atletico with a massive amount to reinvest in the squad. A number of other long-term stalwarts such as Diego Godin, Juanfran and Felipe Luis have also departed.
However, there have been some exciting arrivals, chief among them 19-year-old wonderkid Joao Felix (pictured), who has joined from Benfica. The €126 million fee nearly doubled Atletico’s transfer record while five defensive-minded players have also joined the club, with perhaps the most intriguing being England international Kieran Trippier.
Currently top of La Liga heading into the international break, Atletico must consider their summer of business a success.
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Key signings: Matthijs de Ligt (€75m from Ajax), Danilo (€37m from Manchester City), Cristian Romero (€26m from Genoa), Luca Pellegrini (€22m from Roma), Merih Demiral (€18m from Sassuolo), Aaron Ramsey (free from Arsenal), Gianluigi Buffon (free from PSG), Adrien Rabiot (free from PSG)
Key departures: Joao Cancelo (€65m to Manchester City), Leonardo Spinazzola (€29.5m to Roma), Moise Kean (€27.5m to Everton), Emil Audero (€20m to Sampdoria), Stefano Sturaro (€16.5m to Genoa) Riccardo Orsolini (€15m to Bologna), Alberto Cerri (€9m to Cagliari), Andrea Favilli (€7m to Genoa), Rogerio (€6m to Sassuolo), Leonardo Mancuso (€5m to Empoli), Cristian Romero (loan to Genoa), Andrea Barzagli (retired), Martin Caceres (released)
The summer started brilliantly in the transfer market for new coach Maurizio Sarri. The high-profile arrival of Matthijs de Ligt (pictured) from Ajax was a huge coup, with the Bianconeri beating Barcelona and PSG to the signing of the best young defender in the world.
The club also, typically, picked up two more free transfer bargains in the form of midfielders Aaron Ramsey and Adrien Rabiot. Club legend Gianluigi Buffon also returned in order to be a formidable back-up goalkeeper.
However, as the summer went on, enthusiasm among supporters decreased after a couple of questionable sales. Wonderkid Moise Kean was shipped out to Everton while exciting right-back Joao Cancelo was sold to Manchester City with the rather underwhelming Danilo arriving in part-exchange.
Paulo Dybala was linked with a move to Tottenham and Manchester United but ended up staying in Turin to the delight of supporters.
#6 Bayern Munich
Key signings: Lucas Hernandez (€80m from Atletico Madrid), Benjamin Pavard (€35m from VfB Stuttgart), Ivan Perisic (loan from Inter), Jann-Fiete Arp (€3m from Hamburg), Philippe Coutinho (€8.5m loan from Barcelona), Mickael Cuisance (€12m from Borussia Monchengladbach)
Key departures: Mats Hummels (€30.5m to Dortmund), Renato Sanches (€20m to Lille), Marco Friedl (€3.5m to Werder Bremen), Rafinha (free to Flamengo), Franck Ribery (released), Arjen Robben (retired), James Rodriguez (loan return to Real Madrid)
Bayern Munich have invested predominantly in defenders over the summer, spending over €100m on Lucas Hernandez (pictured) and Benjamin Pavard. While both are quality additions to an already strong squad, the Bavarians could miss the experience of Mats Hummels, Franck Ribery and Arjen Robben.
In their place, Bayern have brought in Ivan Perisic and Philippe Coutinho on loan deals from Inter and Barcelona, respectively.
Wantaway midfielder Renato Sanches finally got his move away from the club with a transfer to Ligue 1 side Lille, while Jerome Boateng remained at the club despite rumours of a switch to Juventus.
#5 Borussia Dortmund
Key signings: Mats Hummels (€30.5m from Bayern Munich), Nico Schulz (€25.5m from Hoffenheim), Thorgan Hazard (€25.5m from Borussia Monchengladbach), Julian Brandt (€25m from Bayern Leverkusen), Paco Alcacer (€21m from Barcelona), Mateu Morey (free from Barcelona U19)
Key departures: Abdou Diallo (€32m to Sevilla), Maximilian Philipp (€20m to Dinamo Moscow), Alexander Isak (€6.5m to Real Sociedad), Sebastian Rode (€4m to Eintracht Frankfurt), Shinji Kagawa (€3m to Real Zaragoza), Jeremy Toljan (loan to Sassuolo), Felix Passlack (loan to Fortuna Sittard), Christian Pulisic (loan return to Chelsea), Andre Schurrle (loan to Spartak Moscow)
After stumbling on the home straight in the Bundesliga last season to hand Bayern Munich another domestic title, Borussia Dortmund have invested heavily to ensure their squad can perform for the long haul in their next campaign.
The return of Mats Hummels (pictured) will give Lucien Favre’s defence a stronger backbone despite the loss of Abdou Diallo, while Thorgan Hazard and Julian Brandt have already proven their attacking potential in Germany. Paco Alcacer's permanent signing is yet another boost for a Dortmund attack that looks more than capable of scoring a plethora of goals.
A recent shock 3-1 loss in the Bundesliga to Union Berlin does however suggest the squad may yet again struggle to be true title contenders.
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Key signings: Mauro Icardi (loan from Inter) Abdou Diallo (€32m from Sevilla), Idrissa Gueye (€30m from Everton), Pablo Sarabia (€18m from Sevilla), Keylor Navas (€15m from Real Madrid), Ander Herrera (free from Manchester United), Marcin Bulka (free from Chelsea), Xavi Simons (undisclosed from Barcelona)
Key departures: Giovani Lo Celso (€22m to Real Betis), Moussa Diaby (€15m to Bayern Leverkusen), Christopher Nkunku (€13m to RB Leipzig), Grzegorz Krychowiak (€12m to Lokomotiv Moscow), Timothy Weah (€10m to Lille), Kevin Trapp (€7m to Frankfurt) Gianluigi Buffon (free to Juventus), Adrien Rabiot (free to Juventus), Dani Alves (free to Sao Paulo), Ruben Providence (undisclosed to Roma), Alphonse Areola (loan to Real Madrid)
PSG surprisingly managed to keep Neymar, with his mooted move to Barcelona not coming to fruition, and with the loan signing of Mauco Icardi from Inter, the Parisians now have one of the most deadly attacks in world football.
The French capital club made a couple of smart Spanish signings, acquiring Ander Herrera and Pablo Sarabia, and also brought in Real Madrid goalkeeper Keylor Navas, with Alphonse Areola heading the opposite way.
Tuchel has managed to retain most of his star players but it will be interesting to see whether the loss of experienced duo Gianluigi Buffon and Dani Alves has an effect on the dressing room. Highly-rated French centre-half Abdou Diallo has moved from Dortmund to bolster the club's defensive stocks, while Xavi Simons – the biggest star in Barca's academy – is an exciting arrival for the future.
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#3 Real Madrid
Key signings: Eden Hazard (€100m from Chelsea), Luka Jovic (€60m from Frankfurt), Eder Militao (€50m from Porto), Ferland Mendy (€48m from Lyon), Rodrygo (€45m from Santos), Alphonse Areola (€2m loan fee from PSG)
Key departures: Mateo Kovacic (€45m to Chelsea), Marcos Llorente (€30m to Atletico Madrid), Raul de Tomas (€20m to Benfica), Theo Hernandez (€20m to AC Milan), Keylor Navas (€15m to PSG), Martin Odegaard (loan to Real Sociedad), Sergio Reguilon (loan to Sevilla), Luca Zidane (loan to Racing Santander), Dani Ceballos (loan to Arsenal)
After a disastrous 2018-19 season, Real Madrid have gone on a spending spree this summer and strengthened in all their key areas. The long-awaited arrival of Eden Hazard (pictured) will give Zinedine Zidane’s attack a much-needed spark, while Luka Jovic looms as an ideal option to lead the line with Karim Benzema not getting any younger. Defensively, both Eder Militao and Ferland Mendy are also versatile, promising acquisitions. Rodrygo, meanwhile, is regarded as one of Brazil’s most exciting talents in years.
Despite spending big, Madrid have also done brilliantly when it comes to selling players. They have raised an incredible amount of money just offloading fringe players, with Mateo Kovacic and Marcos Llorente netting them an impressive €75 million alone. The club also opted to let talented midfielder Dani Ceballos move to Arsenal on loan.
After nearly leaving for China, Gareth Bale has stayed put and been a star for the club so far this season.
The deadline-day arrival of Alphonse Areola on loan from PSG was a quality late addition and gives Real some fresh competition between the sticks following Keylor Navas' departure.
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Key signings: Antoine Griezmann (€120m from Atletico Madrid), Frenkie de Jong (€75m from Ajax), Neto (€26m from Valencia), Junior Firpo (€18m from Real Betis), Emerson (€12m from Atletico MG)
Key departures: Malcom (€40m to Zenit), Jasper Cillessen (€35m to Valencia), Andre Gomes (€25m to Everton), Paco Alcacer (€21m to Dortmund), Denis Suarez (€12.9m to Celta Vigo), Emerson (€6m to Real Betis), Thomas Vermaelen (released), Douglas (released), Xavi Simons (undisclosed to PSG), Philippe Coutinho (€8.5m loan fee to Bayern Munich), Rafinha (€1.5m loan fee to Celta de Vigo)
While they were unable to bring Neymar back to Camp Nou over the summer, Barca did significantly strengthen their attack and midfield with the captures of Antoine Griezmann (pictured) and Frenkie de Jong, respectively.
The club haven't lost any crucial players, with goalkeeper Jasper Cillessen being effectively swapped with Valencia's Neto for a small profit, while several players on the periphery – such as Paco Alcacer, Andre Gomes and Denis Suarez – have been offloaded. Philippe Coutinho's loan move to Bayern was also in the player's best interests, with the Brazilian having never fully established himself at Camp Nou.
Barca have done well to get €40m from Zenit for Malcom, given he only made 15 league appearances last season. However, the departure of 16-year-old wonderkid Xavi Simons to PSG is a blow for the future.
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Key signings: Nicolas Pepe (€80m from Lille), William Saliba (€30m from Saint-Etienne), Kieran Tierney (€27m from Celtic), David Luiz (€8.7m from Chelsea), Gabriel Martinelli (€6.7m from Ituano), Dani Ceballos (loan from Real Madrid)
Key departures: Alex Iwobi (€30.4m to Everton), Krystian Bielik (€8m to Derby County), Laurent Koscielny (€5m to Bordeaux), David Ospina (€3.5m to Napoli), Carl Jenkinson (€2.2m to Nottingham Forest), Aaron Ramsey (free to Juventus), William Saliba (loan to Saint-Etienne), Henrikh Mkhitaryan (loan to Roma), Danny Welbeck (released), Petr Cech (retired), Stephan Lichtsteiner (released), Cohen Bramall (released)
After a quiet opening to the transfer window, the Gunners made up for lost time with a stunning end to their summer business.
French winger Nicolas Pepe (pictured) is their headline arrival and will give Arsenal's frontline another dangerous outlet considering he scored 22 goals in Ligue 1 last season.
The Gunners strengthened their defence as the English deadline approached with the departure of captain Laurent Koscielny offset by the surprise arrival of David Luiz and the inevitable signing of Kieran Tierney.
In addition to signing Brazilian teenager Gabriel Martinelli, Arsenal have also captured talented Spanish midfielder Dani Ceballos on loan from Real Madrid, as well as agreeing a deal with Saint-Etienne for 18-year-old centre-half William Saliba, who heads back to the French club on loan for the coming season.
The sale of Alex Iwobi to Everton represents good value for a player who was unlikely to be in Arsenal's starting side, while the transfer of young defender Krystian Bielik to Derby has also been a decent bit of business from the Gunners, given he never made a Premier League appearance for the club.
Playmaker Henrikh Mkhitaryan was also cleared out on loan to Roma on deadline day after his move to the Emirates Stadium never really worked out.