The goalkeeper started the 2010 World Cup as England's first choice between the posts but was dropped after making an error against the United States in the Three Lions' tournament opener.
Green earned 12 caps for his country in total and was also included in the Three Lions squad for the 2012 European Championships.
Over the course of a twenty-year senior career, the shot-stopper has taken in spells at Norwich, West Ham, QPR, Leeds and Huddersfield, racking up over 600 appearances across all competitions.
Green joined Chelsea on a free transfer last year after leaving Huddersfield but did not make a single competitive appearance for the Blues.
"Following an incredible evening in Baku on Wednesday and after a 23-year career spanning three decades, I've decided that now is the right time to announce my retirement from professional football," Green said in a statement posted on Chelsea's official website.
"Being part of the group and celebrations with such a special squad of players after winning the Europa League seems a fitting way to end what's been an amazing journey for me in the game.
"I've loved every moment and feel privileged to have enjoyed the career I have. I've played with, and against, some of the best players in the world and have experienced so much that professional football has to offer.
"I've had the joy of representing some fantastic clubs, all of whom have helped to shape me in their own varying way. Thank you to all of the fans and everybody connected with Norwich City, West Ham, QPR, Leeds United, Huddersfield Town and Chelsea.
"Representing my country will always be one of my proudest achievements and I feel honoured to have played for England.
"Thank you to all of the managers, coaches and staff I've worked with and thank you to all of the team-mates that I've shared a dressing room with over the years.
"Collectively we've shared some amazing times and I leave the game with memories that I'll always treasure."