The Ghanaian had been in the treatment room since picking up an injury during a home win over Freiburg on September 1.
His return proved crucial as he helped Julian Nagelsmann's outfit register their first victory in four matches in all competitions.
Adams was a notable presence in Hoffenheim's starting XI, partnering captain Kevin Vogt and Ermin Bicakcic in a three-man backline.
Hanno Behrens opened the scoring for the hosts in the 18th minute before English teenager Reiss Nelson restored parity for Die Kraichgauer in the 50th minute.
Nelson was not done just yet as he put Hoffenheim ahead for the first time with a cool finish in the 57th minute.
Hungarian striker Adam Szalai then sealed the comeback win with a 67th minute strike, a minute before Adams was replaced by German youth defender of Nigerian descent Kevin Akpoguma.
It was the Ghanaian's third game for Hoffenheim following a summer move from Swiss side Young Boys.
Saturday's win, meanwhile, temporarily takes Hoffenheim to eighth on the league table, six places above Nurnberg, ahead of the remainder of matchday eight's games.