Zinedine Zidane's side are in third place in the Primera Division, 16 points behind Barca, with the Rojiblancos 12 points adrift in second spot.
A win for Los Blancos or a draw would see the Catalans – who beat Leganes 3-1 on Saturday – move further clear with only seven rounds of games left after this weekend.
Madrid and Atletico are both in action in Europe next week, but here Goal takes a look at everything you need to know ahead their derby date at the Santiago Bernabeu on Sunday...
Real Madrid injuries
Nacho is injured for the first time in his career after picking up a muscle problem in last weekend's win at Las Palmas and will miss out against Atletico, but Raphael Varane should shake off a knock to start on Sunday.
Real Madrid suspensions
Real Madrid do not have any players suspended for Sunday's game at the Bernabeu.
Real Madrid potential starting line-up
Cristiano Ronaldo is likely to start in the derby alongside Karim Benzema, as the Portuguese forward has been in fantastic form in front of goal over the past few weeks, with 23 goals in his last 12 games.
Marco Asensio and Lucas Vazquez should come in as Toni Kroos and Isco are both rested, although Gareth Bale is also in contention for a place in the line-up.
Meanwhile, Sergio Ramos is suspended for the game against Juventus and will start at the back.
Atletico team news
Diego Simeone's side will therefore have had less rest ahead of Sunday's derby clash and the Rojiblancos also have a much smaller squad than their city rivals.
Atleti, in action on Thursday in Lisbon, will want to win on Sunday to keep their slim hopes of claiming La Liga alive.
Juanfran looks ready to return at right back, but left-back Filipe Luis is sidelined. Sime Vrsaljko and Jose Gimenez are doubtful.
TV channel & kick-off time
Real Madrid versus Atletico kicks off at 16:15 local time on Sunday and will be shown live in the United Kingdom (UK) on Sky Sports Football (via the red button) and also on Sky Sports Mix from 15:00 GMT.
In the United States (US), the match is live on beIN Sports and kicks off at 10:15 ET.
Best Opta match facts
This will be the 219th derby between both sides in all competitions (excluding regional championships). So far, both sides have won exactly half (109 victories each from 218 fixtures).
Real Madrid have failed to win in their last four La Liga games against Atletico at the Santiago Bernabeu (drawn one and lost three), their worst run without a home win against the Rojiblancos in La Liga history.
No La Liga team has directed more shots on target than Real Madrid this season (228). Meanwhile, only Barcelona (94) have conceded fewer shots on target than Atletico (96) in La Liga this term.
Cristiano Ronaldo scored 21 goals in 30 games against Atletico in all competitions, more than any other player in the history of this derby.
Antoine Griezmann has scored five goals against Real Madrid in La Liga, with three of them coming at the Santiago Bernabeu (two for Atletico). The Frenchman could become the first Atletico player to score in three consecutive league games at the Bernabeu this century.