Jurgen Klopp's men reached the final in 2017-18 before suffering a 3-1 loss to Real Madrid in the decider in Kiev in May.
While there have been some changes to the squad, Henderson – whose team begin their Champions League campaign at home to Paris Saint-Germain on Tuesday – feels those performances can perhaps lead to another run.
"We can take a lot from it, a lot of confidence from that run to the final," he said, via the Liverpool Echo.
"Obviously we want to go even further this year but we can use the experience in big games like this.
"My medal is in the draw at home. No-one likes a loser's medal, but at the same time the experience of going through it was good for the team and we can use it going forward in this campaign.
"In terms of the final, you just have to use that as motivation to get back there as quickly as possible and put it right. It will certainly not have a negative effect on the team."
Coming off a World Cup campaign with England, Henderson has only made one start for Liverpool this season.
Despite the likes of Naby Keita and Fabinho arriving in the close-season to strengthen Liverpool's midfield and increase competition for his place, Henderson said it was depth the squad needed.
"The manager knew what he needed to strengthen and the players who came in have done fantastically well," the 28-year-old said.
"I think it is normal at a club like Liverpool. You are always going to want to sign top players. You can't say, 'Strengthen every area except my position'.
"We have players who can play in my position like Gini [Georginio Wijnaldum], who at the minute is doing it brilliantly. Fabinho's come in, Naby has done fantastically well.
"At the same time we lost Emre [Can] – a fantastic player – and Chambo [Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain] through injury, and Adam [Lallana] is also out but hopefully back soon.
"You need that depth to win trophies. That is the challenge to be better and improve to try to help the team win as many games as possible."