A late winner from Yannick Carrasco saw Belgium to a 4-3 victory at the Stadion Grbavica on Saturday.
De Bruyne, who played 90 minutes, hit out at the state of the surface, which was bumpy and troubled both teams.
"I was worried I'd get injured," the Manchester City attacker said.
"This was unacceptable. I don't understand how we could play on such a pitch.
"Last time I played on such a bad pitch was when I was a seven-year-old kid."
The 26-year-old was not the only one complaining about the field conditions after the match.
Belgium boss Roberto Martinez, who saw Marouane Fellaini suffer a knee injury during the match, was also less than pleased with the playing surface.
"The pitch in Sarajevo was below any acceptable level! It was impossible to play any tactics," Martinez said.
"Our team spirit won the game, not any tactics. Fellaini injury changed our play, we lost focus, but after that showed amazing character and never gave up. We scored 4 goals and could have scored 4 more."
Belgium had already qualified for Russia 2018, but they moved nine points clear atop Group H.
The result was a blow to Bosnia-Herzegovina, who fell to third – behind Greece – with one match remaining.