Simeone was sent off by referee Clement Turpin during Atleti's 1-1 semi-final first-leg draw against Arsenal last week having continued to harangue the official in the aftermath of Sime Vrsaljko's 10th-minute red card.
The Argentinian tactician was forced to watch Thursday's 1-0 victory over the Gunners from the Wanda Metropolitano stands and that game will serve as the first of four under his suspension.
Should Atleti beat Marseille in Lyon on May 16, Simeone will also be absent for the UEFA Super Cup clash against the Champions League winners and his club's opener in Europe's top competition in 2018-19.
If Marseille prevail, the 48-year-old will miss two Champions League group games next term, with Atleti's place in La Liga's top four already secured.
Simeone was also fined €10,000, the same amount Atleti must pay European football's governing body after a charge against their fans for throwing objects at Emirates Stadium was upheld.