Without the injured Cristiano Ronaldo and Paulo Dybala and the ill Mario Mandzukic, it fell to Leonardo Bonucci to head in the opener midway through the first half.
Moise Kean scored his fourth goal in three games to seal the points late on, as Massimiliano Allegri's side cruised to victory.
Juve overcame a sluggish start to take the lead 22 minutes in, Bonucci nodding in Federico Bernardeschi's corner from the left.
Blaise Matuidi headed a good chance for a second over the bar, and it was a miss that should have been punished six minutes before the break, when Joao Pedro side-footed high and wide.
Kean, who has been something of a revelation in Ronaldo's absence, had a quiet first hour but wasted a fine chance to make it 2-0 when he prodded a bouncing ball straight into the gloves of Alessio Cragno.
Substitute Alberto Cerri threatened with a header, but Kean ended the hosts' resistance when he tapped in Rodrigo Bentancur's drilled cross from the right with five minutes remaining.
What does it mean? Allegri's stand-ins ensure the show goes on
With no Ronaldo, Dybala, Mandzukic, Douglas Costa, Juan Cuadrado and Sami Khedira, this was always likely to be a difficult trip for Juve at the beginning of a crucial month in their season.
As it was, they saw out the win with minimal fuss courtesy of some solid performances from a handful of back-up players, ensuring their grip on the title remains firm as they prepare for a double-header against AC Milan and Ajax.
Cagliari's three-game winning run at home came to an end, but they remain unlikely to be dragged back into a relegation scrap.
Bonucci the standard-bearer
Bonucci equalled his best-ever tally for league goals in a single season with his header, and he largely controlled the remainder of the match from the back. A supreme display.
Lykogiannis a liability
Charalampos Lykogiannis was booked for a poor challenge on Mattia De Sciglio in the first half, and he was exposed on the left-hand side as Bentancur delivered the cross for the killer second.
Key Opta facts
- Bonucci scored the 500th Juventus goal under Massimiliano Allegri (all comps).
- Juventus have scored 11 goals from corners in Serie A this season, at least three more than any other team.
- Juventus have scored 12 headed goals in Serie A this season, no team has scored more.
- Moise Kean is the second-youngest player to have scored 4+ goals in the Top-5 European Leagues this season (after Jadon Sancho).All Bonucci’s three goals in Serie A this season have come from corner.
- Alex Sandro played today his 150th game with Juventus in all competitions.