The Whites had the chance to take the lead in the dying embers of the game after Chris Lowe was adjudged to have handled in the box.
First choice taker Aleksandar Mitrovic was set to take a spot-kick before Kamara wrestled the ball off the Serbian and demand he be given the opportunity to give Fulham the advantage.
Twenty-three-year-old Kamara had previously scored the west Londoners' only other penalty this season against Manchester United in the absence of Mitrovic and felt he had earned the opportunity to retain the role, but he was denied by Jonas Lossl.
And though Fulham prevail 1-0 thanks to a late Mitrovic strike, Ranieri was left fuming with his player.
"I said everything to him," the Italian told BBC Sport . "I said to leave the ball to Mitrovic, because he is the man who has to shoot the penalty.
"It is unbelievable what he did but he did not respect me, he did not respect the club, his teammates and the crowd.
"I spoke with him but it is not right, it is not right.
"[When he missed] I wanted to kill him. It is normal. It is not possible. One man takes the ball only because he shot the last penalty but only because there is no Mitrovic."
Ex-Newcastle forward Mitrovic went on to net the eventual winner in the first minute of added-on time to save Kamara's blushes, scoring after Ryan Sessegnon's fine pass.
But the 27-year-old refused to take aim at his strike-partner.
"For the penalty, we had a small argument and I think it is my job for penalties," he explained.
"[Kamara] did not think like this, but I respect that.
"I have done the same in the past. I don't have a problem with this, he missed and that is part of football."