After being booked for removing his shirt in celebration after scoring as a substitute, Ronaldo was then shown a second yellow card in the wake of being adjudged by referee Ricardo de Burgos to have dived in the penalty area.
But Ronaldo, who is already reportedly upset about an ongoing tax evastion case regarding his image rights, hit out at the news via social media.
"One more incomprehensible decision. From injustice to injustice, they will never overthrow me," Ronaldo wrote in Portuguese on Instagram.
"And as always I will come back stronger. Thank you to all who have supported me."
Madrid won the Supercopa 5-1 on aggregate against Barcelona and opened their league season with a 3-0 win at Deportivo La Coruna in Ronaldo's absence on Saturday.