A Stephan El Shaarawy double and Diego Perotti's strike saw the Italians streak to a 3-0 victory at the Stadio Olimpico, putting them in pole position in Group C after four games.
Conte had set out an adventurous line-up in Rome, and Gerrard was not amused by Chelsea's defensive horror show.
"I think Conte disrespected Roma today," the former Liverpool man told BT Sport.
"He showed Atletico Madrid fantastic respect by going with Hazard behind Morata and a lot of bodies behind the ball to pack the midfield.
"Conte has disrespected Roma tonight..."— BT Sport Football (@btsportfootball) 31 de octubre de 2017
Steven Gerrard thinks the Chelsea boss had his bold team selection "backfire." pic.twitter.com/KtATwQS8E3
"Today he went with a very, very bold team selection and it's backfired on him."
The Blues conceded a total of six goals in their two games against Roma, proving once again that they miss the presence of N'Golo Kante anchoring the midfield.
The injured Kante missed out on a place in Chelsea's matchday squad at the last minute, but Gerrard believes Cesc Fabregas is no replacement for the Frenchman.
"Fabregas doesn't cover ground like Kante. Hes exceptional on the ball and can pick out the killer pass," he explained.
Chelsea resume their Champions League campaign on November 22 away to Qarabag, where in spite of Tuesday's result a win will see them secure qualification for the last 16.