The striker assisted Everton's opening strike and scored the crucial second goal on the stroke of half-time before his implosion after receiving a second yellow card on 70 minutes.
Jesus, who was given his first yellow card in the 30th minute, was sent off by Chilean referee Roberto Tobar following an innocuous challenge on Peruvian defender Carlos Zambrano.
The Manchester City attacker reacted angrily to the dismissal, kicking a water bottle as he stormed from the field before punching and pushing two VAR monitors on his way to the dressing room.
He was then pictured in tears sitting on the steps of the tunnel while yelling in the direction of the match officials.
FURIOSO CON EL #VAR? Así salió Gabriel Jesús luego de ser expulsado por doble amarilla (bien expulsado)— Casa Blanca Sports (@CBlancaSports) July 7, 2019
¿Qué opinas de la reacción del brasileño? #copaamerica #brasil #gabrieljesus #futbol pic.twitter.com/NS9inbxkLJ
However, Jesus was all smiles when he held the Copa America trophy aloft with his crucial contribution helping dull the memories of his performance in Brazil's World Cup exit in Russia 12 months ago.
The 22-year-old ghosted past two defenders to cross the ball for Everton's first-time finish in the 15th minute, but the advantage was cancelled out through Paolo Guerrero's penalty as first-half stoppage time approached.
But Jesus managed to get the hosts ahead again before half-time with a superb, controlled strike from the top of the area deflating the Peruvian fight back.
After his send-off, Peru had an extra man advantage for 20 minutes in their bid to get the game back on level terms, but Richarlison sealed the game from the spot as the 90 ticked over.
It was Brazil's ninth Copa America title and their first since winning the 2007 edition in Venezuela.
They swept the tournament's awards with defender Dani Alves winning best player as winger Everton won the best young player award and the Golden Boot with his three goals - an honour he shared with Peru's Guerrero.
Goalkeeper Alisson won the Golden Glove award after conceding only one goal in the entire tournament - with the Guerrero penalty being the only time his net was breached.