Already third outright in the rankings, Neymar netted his 57th in international colours to put Brazil ahead against Mexico in the last 16.
He previously moved into third earlier in the World Cup with a goal in the Selecao's 2-0 victory over Costa Rica in Group E's second round of fixtures.
Neymar had been tied on 55 with Romario after crashing in a superb goal as a second-half substitute against Croatia in a World Cup warm-up match.
Neymar's strike against Costa Rica saw him bounce back from what proved to be an up-and-down match for him.
He missed one or two chances before seeing a penalty appeal overturned by the video assistant referee (VAR) in Saint Petersburg.
With the tie 0-0 at the time, Neymar thought he had earned Brazil a crucial spot-kick in the second half after tumbling over inside the box.
The referee initially whistled for a penalty but overturned his decision after VAR reviewed the call, much to the ex-Santos man's frustration.
He then failed to add to his tally in Brazil's final Group E clash against Serbia, before returning to scoring ways to give the Selecao one foot in the quarter-final.
Brazil's all-time top scorers