Paulo Dybala's opener was cancelled out by Lautaro Martinez's 18th-minute penalty at San Siro, but Gonzalo Higuain scored a late winner for Juve.
It ended Inter's perfect start to the Serie A season and saw eight-time reigning champions Juve return to the top.
Despite Inter's bright start, Conte claims his growing team should not yet be measured against Juventus.
"I repeat that this is a path of growth with young people who are working hard at the level of experience and of all the situations at the moment. We need to work and there are no shortcuts.
"We must not compare ourselves to Juventus, they are of another category from all points of view. We started working to reduce an important gap."
The result means Juve are the only unbeaten team left in Serie A, holding a one-point lead going into the international break.
Asked about the performances of his front two of Martinez and Romelu Lukaku, Conte felt the duo could have done more.
"Surely in the finalisation, we could do something better, but the team arrived, it produced," he said.
"The statistics speak of a very balanced challenge, although the two teams are not on paper."