The Scottish Premiership side had recorded a narrow 1-0 victory in the first leg at Ibrox, but a historic victory from the hosts in Luxembourg resulted in a 2-1 aggregate defeat for Pedro Caixinha's men.
Goals from Emmanuel Fracoise and Sebastian Thill saw Progres progress to the second qualifying round, having never won a European fixture before and only ever scoring one goal in a continental game.
The shock result saw Rangers draw a lot of criticism online, with some fans and pundits describing the result as 'humiliating' and 'embarrassing' for the Old Firm club.
Rangers are taking Brexit a bit too serious. #loyal— - (@Tam_Selleck) July 4, 2017
Progres Niederkorn had never won a European match & scored only one European goal in their entire history.— bet365 (@bet365) July 4, 2017
Progres Niederkorn 2-0 Rangers. pic.twitter.com/21gffqcYAe
"It gave me a great level of satisfaction to know how much the Rangers fans were hurting after we'd beaten their team."— CelticQuote (@CelticQuote) July 4, 2017
Chris Sutton pic.twitter.com/nOKTigLGK3
THIS IS HOW IT FEELS TO BE RANGERS— (@donn_1967) July 4, 2017
THIS IS HOW IT FEELS TO BE SMALL
THIS IS HOW IT FEELS WHEN YOUR PASSPORT'S BACK IN YOUR DRAWER
Rangers Europa League campaign summed up: pic.twitter.com/mGbkRVQs5s— Coral (@Coral) July 4, 2017
"Celtic losing to Lincoln Red Imps is the worst result in Scottish football history."— CelticBible (@CelticBible) July 4, 2017
Rangers: "Hold my beer."
Rangers diving out of the Europa League qualifiers like: pic.twitter.com/puzJ4G8QFY— Football Away Days (@sportingawayday) July 4, 2017
Rangers dumped out of European competition to a team that finished 4th in the Luxembourg league. Utterly humiliating for Scottish football.— Jonathan Sutherland (@BBCjsutherland) July 4, 2017
Rangers will now turn their attentions back to the Scottish Premiership, having finished third last season, 41 points behind Brendan Rodgers' Celtic.