Marcelo has dropped out of the Brazil squad for friendlies against Saudi Arabia and Argentina, the Brazilian FA (CBF) has confirmed.
The Real Madrid left-back has missed his team's last two matches, a 0-0 derby draw with Atletico Madrid in La Liga and Tuesday's 1-0 Champions League loss away to CSKA Moscow.
And Marcelo's calf injury will prevent the 30-year-old from linking up with Tite's squad during the international break, the CBF said on Wednesday.
The World Cup quarter-finalists are yet to confirm whether they will call up a fresh face to replace Marcelo, who has made 58 appearances to date for his national team.
Juventus' Alex Sandro would be the left-back's natural replacement in the starting line-up, while Filipe Luis could earn a recall after being omitted from Tite's original squad.
Brazil face Saudi Arabia on October 12 before taking on rivals Argentina in another friendly match four days later.
Thiago Silva, Douglas Costa and Willian are among the big names to be missing from the group named by Tite.
Barcelona winger Malcom, 21, could make his international debut after being handed a maiden call-up.
Malcom's Barca team-mates Arthur and Philippe Coutinho are also in the squad, as is Man United midfielder Fred.