Uncapped duo Steven N'Zonzi and Benjamin Pavard have also surprisingly been included on head coach Didier Deschamps' 24-man list.
Manchester United forward Martial, who has not played for his country since October 2016, has been rewarded for some strong recent form for Jose Mourinho's side.
Lyon captain Nabil Fekir has also earned a recall after being left out of the squad for last month's final World Cup qualifying matches.
There is no place for the injured Paul Pogba or Real Madrid striker Karim Benzema.
Speaking in September, Deschamps suggested he would bring Martial back into the set-up if he continued to show improvement in his United displays.
"Anthony is a lot better because he's making a difference in games," he said. "He's getting back to a good level, he's being used more by Mourinho.
"He came to us very young, he was with us for Euro 2016. He had a difficult period that he seems to have gotten over. I can only encourage him to continue and make me think it over again and again."
France host Wales on November 10 before taking on world champions Germany four days later.
Squad in full:
Defenders: Lucas Digne (Barcelona), Christophe Jallet (Nice), Presnel Kimpembe (Paris Saint-Germain), Laurent Koscielny (Arsenal), Layvin Kurzawa (Paris Saint-Germain), Benjamin Pavard (Stuttgart), Samuel Umtiti (Barcelona), Raphael Varane (Real Madrid)
Forwards: Kingsley Coman (Bayern Munich), Nabil Fekir (Lyon), Olivier Giroud (Arsenal), Antoine Griezmann (Atletico Madrid), Alexandre Lacazette (Arsenal), Anthony Martial (Manchester United), Kylian Mbappe (Paris Saint-Germain), Florian Thauvin (Marseille)