Georginio Wijnaldum and Memphis Depay scored for the resurgent hosts to give Ronald Koeman's men an impressive victory that kept alive their hopes of topping Group One in League A and, in the process, relegated Germany.
A draw for Oranje against Joachim Low's side in Gelsenkirchen on Monday will see them top the pool and advance to the final four.
It was a first defeat for France following their World Cup success in Russia and, without a string of Lloris saves, the scoreline would have been even more emphatic.
The Tottenham goalkeeper said: "We played to the minimum of our potential and paid for it. The score could have been even more flattering for the Dutch.
“We have to hope that the Germans beat them on Monday.
"We knew what to expect, we knew the level of the Netherlands, they had demonstrated it against Germany and Belgium in October and they turned in a great performance.
"We did not live up to it. It's disappointing, now we no longer have our destiny in our hands.
"In the coming days we will have to analyse it even if it is not easy to find the right words."
France meet Uruguay in a friendly on Tuesday and coach Didier Deschamps will be looking for a much-improved performance from that produced at De Kuip.
"There was one team out there with a lot of desire, and we didn't have enough," he said.
“There was a clear gulf between the sides and they deserved the win. We didn’t show enough."